Nicoalus Copernicus (1473–1543) — the man who “stopped the Sun, moved the Earth”, creator of the heliocentric system theory, one of the greatest breakthroughs in world astronomy. He was an eminent Renaissance scholar, in his time esteemed more as a physician than an astronomer. 

A representative of the iatromechanistic school of medicine, he regarded diseases as disorders explainable by the laws of physics and mechanics. He was renowned for his consistent introduction of rational, simple remedies and his promotion of medicine based on close clinical observation and the logic of therapy.