Maria Skłodowska-Curie (1867–1934) — two-time Nobel Prize winner in chemistry and physics, co-founder of the science of radioactivity, discoverer of the elements polonium and radium. She is known as the “mother of radiotherapy” — her research into radioactivity contributed to the development of this field and its use in cancer treatment. She initiated the establishment of the Radium Institute in Paris (1912) and a similar institution in Warsaw, the capital of the reborn Poland (opened in 1932).