Jan Mikulicz-Radecki (1850–1905) — Pioneer and inventor of gastrointestinal endoscopy, inventor of the surgical mask. He performed the first gastroscopy on a professional sword swallower. He was the first in the world to stitch a ruptured gastric ulcer. The Mikulicz forceps he invented are still used today. He also invented threaded surgical gloves and was one of the pioneers of iodoform antisepsis, which replaced carbolic acid. He introduced many new surgical methods.